(Some of the following linked information was written before the introduction of the HORSE PAL®. With the introduction of the HORSE PAL®, statements saying that very little can be done to reduce horse fly and deer fly populations are no longer valid.)

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Horse Fly / Deer Fly Information

Mosquito and Fly Prevention and Control on Manitoba Farms
Manitoba Agriculture, Food and Rural Initiatives - good fly identity images
Horse Fly, Deer Fly Identification and Traps, with HORSE PAL® recommendation.
Tabanids (horseflies)
Dermatology Online Journal, Department of Medicine (Dermatology), University of California, Davis
Horse Fly, Deer Fly
Entomology - Texas A & M University
Biting Flies
Illinois Department of Public Health "horsefly"
Quick encyclopedia definition of horsefly
Deer and Horse Flies
Green Valley Pest Control, Birmingham, AL
Horse Flies and Deer Flies
University of Kentucky College of Agriculture
Horse Flies & Deer Flies of Kentucky
University of Kentucky Department of Entomology
Deer Flies and Mosquitoes
Michigan State University Diagnostic Services, Department of Plant Pathology

Horse/Barn Equipment/Accessories Information

Least Toxic Insect Control for Horses
Discussion of toxicity issues of pesticides used in fly sprays - cites fly traps (and HORSE PAL®) as alternative to pesticides.
  Last revised April 3, 2023