(Some of the following linked information was written before the introduction of the HORSE PAL®. With the introduction of the HORSE PAL®, statements saying that very little can be done to reduce horse fly and deer fly populations are no longer valid.)

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Horse Fly / Deer Fly Information

Mosquito and Fly Prevention and Control on Manitoba Farms
Manitoba Agriculture, Food and Rural Initiatives - good fly identity images
Horse Fly, Deer Fly Identification and Traps, with HORSE PAL® recommendation.
Tabanids (horseflies)
Dermatology Online Journal, Department of Medicine (Dermatology), University of California, Davis
Horse Fly, Deer Fly
Entomology - Texas A & M University
Biting Flies
Illinois Department of Public Health "horsefly"
Quick encyclopedia definition of horsefly
Deer and Horse Flies
Green Valley Pest Control, Birmingham, AL
Biting Flies
A page by the Department of Medical Entomology, University of Sydney and Westmead Hospital, Australia
Horse Flies and Deer Flies
University of Kentucky College of Agriculture
Horse Flies & Deer Flies of Kentucky
University of Kentucky Department of Entomology
Deer Flies and Mosquitoes
Michigan State University Diagnostic Services, Department of Plant Pathology

Horse/Barn Equipment/Accessories Information

Least Toxic Insect Control for Horses
Discussion of toxicity issues of pesticides used in fly sprays - cites fly traps (and HORSE PAL®) as alternative to pesticides.
  Last revised January 28, 2021